A Fast & Accurate Oracle for Object Placement

Cloud object stores offer vastly different price points for object storage as a function of workload and geography. Poor object placement can thus lead to significant cost overheads. Prior cost-saving techniques attempt to optimize placement policies on the fly, deciding object placements for each object individually. In practice, these techniques do not scale to the size of the modern cloud. In this work, we leverage the static nature and pay-per-use pricing model of cloud environments to explore a different approach. Rather than computing object placements on the fly, we precompute a SkyPIE oracle—a lookup structure representing all possible placement policies and the workloads for which they are optimal. Internally, SkyPIE represents placement policies as a matrix of cost-hyperplanes, which we effectively precompute through pruning and convex optimization. By leveraging a fast geometric algorithm, online queries then are 1 to 8 orders of magnitude faster but as accurate as Integer-Linear-Programming. This makes exact optimization tractable for real workloads and we show >10x cost savings compared to state-of-the-art heuristic approaches.


Tiemo Bang, Chris Douglas, Natacha Crooks, Joseph M. Hellerstein